Team's Article

Morangup Properties Sold 

(prices quoted are the listed price, not the final sale price)
---------------------------------------------------------

63 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

2 Ha

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$499,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $499,000
    October 2015 Under Contract
    September 2015 $430,000
    August 2015 $430,000
    June 2015 $499,000
    June 2015 $430,000
    October 2014 $499,000
    September 2014 $499,000
    August 2014 $499,000
    April 2014$499,000
    March 2014$499,000
    January 2014$499,000
    December 2013$499,000
    January 2011$525,000
    December 2010 $525,000

1300 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

10 Ha

Land
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$399,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016$399,000
    June 2015$399,000
    March 2014$399,000
    December 2013$399,000
    September 2012$279,000 Under Offer
    September 2012$279,000
    June 2012$279,000 New

484 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

101171.5 m2

Land
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$260,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $260,000
    July 2015 $312,000
    June 2015 $312,000
    December 2014 $350,000
    October 2014 $350,000
    July 2014 $350,000

83 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

5 Acres

Land
Last Advertised : October 2016
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 Under Offer
    June 2015 $195,000
    September 2014 $215,000
    April 2013 $260,000
    February 2013 Contact
    June 2012 $300,000

887 MCKNOE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$690,000
Historical Price:

    October 2016 $690,000

29 DRYANDRA ROAD, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$999,000 PRICE SLASHED
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $999,000 PRICE SLASHED
    September 2016 $1,100,000 Negotiable

20 GREVILLEA PLACE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$599,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $599,000
    October 2009 $695,000

374 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$499,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $499,000
    December 2012 $499,000
    December 2011 $499,000
    September 2011 $499,000
    August 2011 $499,000
    June 2011 $539,000

50 HILL PLACE, MORANGUP

101172 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$559,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $559,000
    June 2013 $590,000 SOLD
    June 2013 $590,000
    May 2013 $590,000
    May 2013 Under Offer
    April 2013 $590,000
    February 2013 $599,000 - $630,000
    January 2013 $649,500

911 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$699,000 From
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $699,000 From
    September 2010 $649,000
    July 2010 $649,000

233 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP
Flat
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$439,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $439,000
    October 2016 $399,900

800 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

10.12ha

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2016
$599,000 From
Historical Prices:

    October 2016 $599,000 From
    September 2016 $599,000 From
    March 2016 $649,000 From
    November 2013 $750,000
    February 2013 $750,000
    December 2012 $750,000

591 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
10.08ha
Last Advertised Price : September 2016
$649,000 From
Historical Prices:

    September 2016$649,000 From
    September 2016Under Offer
    August 2016$649,000 From
    May 2016$649,000 From
    April 2016$649,000 From
    December 2015$669,000 From
    October 2015$695,000
    October 2015$669,000 From
    July 2015$695,000

101 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
10.12ha

House
Last Advertised Price : September 2016
$195,000
Historical Price:

    September 2016$195,000

119 GREVILLEA PLACE, MORANGUP
8.90ha

House
Last Advertised Price : August 2016
$449,000 From
Historical Prices:

    August 2016$449,000 From
    July 2016$449,000 From

434 MORANGUP ROAD, MORANGUP
House
Last Advertised Price : August 2016
$900,000 Offers
Historical Prices:

    August 2016$900,000 Offers
    July 2016$900,000 Offers
    March 2016$900,000 Offers

350 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
10.12ha

House
Last Advertised Price : July 2016
$549,000
Historical Prices:

    July 2016$549,000
    July 2016Under Offer
    December 2015$559,000 - $579,000
    August 2015$559,000 - $579,000
    June 2015$579,000
    May 2015$579,000
    January 2015$595,000
    December 2014$595,000
    September 2014$595,000
    August 2014$595,000
    March 2014$647,000
    January 2014$650,000
    October 2013$665,000

131 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP
35 Acres

House
Last Advertised Price : June 2016
$475,000
Historical Prices:

    June 2016$475,000
    June 2015$475,000
    July 2014$499,000
    November 2013$520,000
    October 2013$535,000
    September 2013$535,000

97 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP
9.31ha

House
Last Advertised Price : June 2016
$599,000 From
Historical Prices:

    June 2016$599,000 From
    July 2013$695,000
    March 2009$645,000 New
    January 2009$645,000
    January 2008$760,000
    October 2007$760,000
    September 2007$760,000

17 SHORT PLACE, MORANGUP
10.12ha

House
Last Advertised Price : June 2016
$599,000 From
Historical Price:

    June 2016$599,000 From

LOT 104 COBBLERS POOL ROAD, TOODYAY, MORANGUP

2350000 sqm

Lifestyle
Last Advertised Price : March 2016
$990,000
Historical Price:

    March 2016 $990,000

2 MCGELLIN WAY, MORANGUP
9.31ha

House
Last Advertised Price : March 2016
$549,000 From
Historical Prices:

    March 2016 $549,000 From
    February 2016 $549,000 From
    December 2015 $570,000
    December 2015 $570,000 Price Reduced
    October 2015 $570,000

208 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP
2.02ha

House
Last Advertised : February 2016
Historical Prices:

    February 2016 Under Contract
    August 2015 $449,000
    June 2015 $449,000
    August 2011 $519,000
    April 2011 $529,000
    March 2011 $529,000
    January 2011 $529,000
    December 2010 $529,000
    November 2010  $529,000
    October 2010  $549,000

220 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

10.02ha

House
Last Advertised Price : February 2016
$649,000 From
Historical Prices:

    February 2016 $649,000 From
    October 2015 $735,000
    July 2015 $735,000
    December 2014 $750,000 From

146 GRANDIS ROAD, MORANGUP

2.19ha

House
Last Advertised : January 2016
Historical Price:

    January 2016 Under Contract

4254 (L8) TOODYAY RD, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : December 2015
$900,000
Historical Price:

    December 2015$900,000

303 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

20235 sqm
Last Advertised Price : November 2015
$699,000
Historical Prices:

    November 2015 $699,000
    August 2015 $699,000
    June 2015 $699,000

80 MORANGUP ROAD, MORANGUP

21.62 ha
Last Advertised Price : October 2015
$795,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2015 $795,000
    April 2015 $795,000
    March 2015 $795,000
    February 2015 $795,000
    December 2014$795,000
    October 2014$850,000
    September 2014$850,000
    March 2014$850,000
    January 2014$850,000
    July 2013 $895,000 Offers
    December 2012 $895,000 From

MORANGUP ROAD, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2015
$679,000
Historical Price:

    October 2015 $679,000

31 NORTH PLACE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : September 2015
$945,000
Historical Prices:

    September 2015 $945,000
    August 2015 $945,000
    June 2015 $945,000
    December 2009 $775,000

LOT 50 (258) LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP

4.31ha

Land
Last Advertised : September 2015
Historical Prices:

    September 2015Under Contract
    August 2015Under Contract
    August 2015$280,000
    June 2015$280,000
    February 2015$285,000
    November 2014$285,000

295 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

2.02ha

House
Last Advertised Price : August 2015
$449,000 From
Historical Prices:

    September 2015 $449,000 From
    June 2015 $449,000 From

1111 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

10.15

Land
Last Advertised Price : August 2015
$200,000 From
Historical Prices:

    August 2015 $200,000 From
    June 2015 Make An Offer
    May 2015 Make An Offer

BRUMBY CHASE, MORANGUP

323748.5 Acres

Rural / Farm
Last Advertised Price : July 2015
$525,000
Historical Price:

    July 2015$525,000

375 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP
House
Last Advertised Price : June 2015
$549,000
Historical Prices:

    June 2015$549,000
    May 2012$499,000 SOLD
    May 2012$499,000 From
    April 2012$549,000
    March 2012$514,000
    December 2011$549,000
    September 2011$609,000
    January 2009$595,000
    August 2008$595,000 New

325 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP
House
Last Advertised Price : May 2015
$399,000
Historical Prices:

    May 2015$399,000
    October 2012$399,000
    September 2012$399,000
    July 2012$399,000
    January 2010$465,000

80 MORANGUP RD, MORANGUP
22 Ha (54.36 Acres) approx.

House
Last Advertised Price : April 2015
$795,000
Historical Prices:

    April 2015$795,000
    May 2011$995,000 - $1,045,000
    April 2011$995,000 - $1,045,000
    December 2010$1,095,000

111 GREVILLEA PLACE, MORANGUP
4.4515
Last Advertised Price : February 2015
$539,000
Historical Prices:

    February 2015$539,000
    January 2015$539,000
    December 2014$539,000

586 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
27 Acres

House
Last Advertised Price : January 2015
$675,000
Historical Prices:

    January 2015$675,000
    September 2014$675,000

55 BLACKBOY WAY, MORANGUP
20234 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : January 2015
$545,000 From
Historical Prices:

    January 2015$545,000 From
    December 2014$525,000
    November 2014$525,000

52 MCGELLIN WAY, MORANGUP
22 acres (approx)

Land
Last Advertised Price : December 2014
$525,000
Historical Prices:

    December 2014$525,000
    August 2013$525,000
    July 2013$525,000
    June 2013$465,000 - $499,000
    June 2013Under Offer
    November 2012$525,000
    July 2012$595,000
    June 2012$595,000

210 RED BROOKE CIRCLE, MORANGUP
House
Last Advertised Price : December 2014
$619,000
Historical Price:

    December 2014$619,000

46 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

20234 sqm

Land
Last Advertised Price : November 2014
$239,000
Historical Prices:

    November 2014$239,000
    October 2014$239,000
    July 2014$249,000

MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
Land
Last Advertised : October 2014
Historical Prices:

    October 2014Under Offer
    September 2014Under Offer
    September 2014$285,000 Under Offer
    February 2014$595,000
    January 2014Under Offer
    February 2013$599,000 Under Offer
    February 2013$524,900
    February 2013$599,000
    January 2013$524,900
    September 2012$625,000
    January 2011$700,000 - $750,000
    December 2010$700,000 - $750,000
    August 2010$725,000
    August 2010$645,000
    August 2010$774,000
    February 2010$785,000 New
    November 2009$595,000 New

TOODYAY ROAD, MORANGUP
89.26ha

House
Last Advertised Price : September 2014
$990,000
Historical Prices:

    September 2014$990,000
    March 2014$990,000
    March 2013$990,000
    February 2013Contact

531 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

10.1171
Last Advertised : August 2014
Historical Price:

    September 2014Under Offer

1009 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
25 Acres

House
Last Advertised Price : August 2014
$575,000 - $595,000
Historical Prices:

    August 2014$575,000 - $595,000
    July 2014$575,000 - $595,000
    June 2014$575,000 - $595,000
    March 2014$625,000
    January 2014$639,000
    December 2013$650,000
    January 2012$625,000
    December 2011$625,000
    November 2011$625,000
    January 2011$635,000 Reduction
    November 2010$650,000
    August 2010$735,000
    June 2010$740,000 - $780,000
    January 2009$699,000
    November 2008$699,000

484 (LOT 122) MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

25 acre

Land
Last Advertised Price : July 2014
$350,000
Historical Prices:

    July 2014$350,000
    April 2014$350,000

LOT 53, 39 ECHIDNA ROAD, MORANGUP

Land
Last Advertised Price : June 2014
$399,000 From
Historical Prices:

    June 2014$399,000 From
    May 2014$399,000 From



40 WATTLE WAY, MORANGUP

10.0044 Ha

Land
Last Advertised Price : May 2014
$399,000
Historical Price:

    May 2014$399,000

LOT 201, 46 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

Residential Land
Last Advertised Price : April 2014
$249,000
Historical Price:

    April 2014$249,000

367 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP
20234 sqm

Residential Land
Last Advertised Price : April 2014
$250,000
Historical Prices:

    April 2014$250,000
    February 2014$299,000
    November 2013$340,000
    September 2013$340,000
    July 2013$340,000
    June 2013$340,000
    April 2013$340,000
    March 2013$340,000
    February 2013Contact

76 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

101172 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : April 2014
$259,000
Historical Prices:

    April 2014$259,000
    March 2014$259,000

258 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP

10.65 acres (approx)

Land
Last Advertised Price : March 2014
$299,000
Historical Prices:

    March 2014$299,000
    July 2013$299,000 From

197 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

2.1 Ha

Land
Last Advertised Price : March 2014
$269,000 - $289,000
Historical Prices:

    March 2014$269,000 - $289,000
    September 2013$269,000 - $289,000

1239 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : March 2014
$450,000 SOLD
Historical Price:

    March 2014$450,000 SOLD

511 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
101172 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : March 2014
$459,000
Historical Prices:

    March 2014$459,000
    May 2013$459,000
    March 2013$459,000

71 GRANDIS ROAD, MORANGUP

3.8445

House
Last Advertised Price : March 2014
$429,000
Historical Price:

    March 2014$429,000

714 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

100200 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : February 2014
$595,000
Historical Price:

    February 2014$595,000

31 GREVILLEA PLACE, MORANGUP

43990 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : February 2014
$599,000
Historical Prices:

    February 2014$599,000
    April 2010$579,000 SOLD
    February 2010$579,000

GREVILLEA PLACE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : February 2014
$599,000
Historical Prices:

    February 2014$599,000
    September 2012$649,900 SOLD
    August 2012$649,900
    June 2012$649,900
    January 2011$799,000
    December 2010$799,000
    June 2010$799,000
    July 2008$528,000 New

LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : January 2014
$399,000
Historical Prices:

    January 2014$399,000
    January 2013$499,000 SOLD
    January 2013$499,000
    December 2009$535,000 New
    April 2008$825,000 New

GRANDIS ROAD, MORANGUP
Last Advertised : January 2014
Historical Price:

    January 2014Under Offer

201/46 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

20100 sqm

Land
Last Advertised Price : January 2014
$249,000
Historical Price:

    January 2014$249,000

RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

20000 sqm

House
Last Advertised Price : January 2014
$499,000
Historical Prices:

    January 2014$499,000
    April 2013$260,000
    March 2013$260,000
    March 2013$499,000
    February 2013Contact
    January 2011$575,000
    December 2010$575,000
    September 2010$558,000
    June 2010$300,000

36 GRANDIS ROAD, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : December 2013
$485,000
Historical Price:

    December 2013$485,000

252 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : December 2013
$399,000
Historical Price:

    December 2013$399,000

LT 67 / 45 ECHIDNA RD, MORANGUP

10.08 ha (approx)

Land
Last Advertised : November 2013
Historical Prices:

    November 2013Under Offer
    April 2013$320,000
    October 2012$350,000
    December 2011$370,000
    November 2011$390,000

LOT 203, 367 REDBROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

2.00ha (4.95 acres) (approx)

Residential Land
Last Advertised Price : November 2013
$340,000
Historical Price:

    November 2013$340,000

4254 TOODYAY ROAD, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : November 2013
$990,000
Historical Prices:

    November 2013$990,000
    June 2012$1,390,000
    May 2012$1,390,000
    October 2011$1,390,000

COTTAGE AMONGST THE WILD FLOWERS!, MORANGUP

2 ha

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2013
$499,000
Historical Price:

    October 2013$499,000

CHAMPAGNE FUTURE ON A BEER BUDGET, MORANGUP

15 ha

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2013
$749,000
Historical Price:

    October 2013$749,000

RURAL BLISS, MORANGUP

12 acres

Semi-rural
Last Advertised Price : October 2013
$439,000
Historical Price:

    October 2013$439,000

HAPPY FAMILY BEGINNINGS!, MORANGUP

5 ha

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2013
$485,000
Historical Price:

    October 2013$485,000

FAMILY FRIENDLY 11AC FARMYARD!, MORANGUP

11 acres

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2013
$399,000
Historical Price:

    October 2013$399,000

111 WATTLE WAY, MORANGUP

25 acres (approx)

House
Last Advertised Price : October 2013
$519,000
Historical Prices:

    October 2013$519,000
    July 2013$519,000

65 MORANGUP ROAD, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : September 2013
$749,000
Historical Price:

    September 2013$749,000

76 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : September 2013
$845,000
Historical Price:

    September 2013$845,000

15 BLACKBUTT PLACE, MORANGUP

10 ha (approx)

House
Last Advertised Price : September 2013
$599,000 From
Historical Prices:

    September 2013$599,000 From
    September 2013Under Offer
    May 2013$599,000 From

360 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

2 ha (approx)

House
Last Advertised Price : August 2013
$479,000 - $499,000
Historical Prices:

    August 2013$479,000 - $499,000
    August 2013Under Offer
    July 2013SOLD
    July 2013Under Offer
    June 2013$479,000 - $499,000
    May 2013$499,000
    March 2013$499,000
    February 2013$499,000 - $529,000

74 DRYANDRA ROAD, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : July 2013
$575,000
Historical Prices:

    July 2013$575,000
    December 2012$575,000
    August 2012$575,000
    July 2012$575,000

11 PINGLE PLACE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : June 2013
$545,000
Historical Prices:

    July 2013$545,000
    March 2013$545,000 SOLD
    March 2013$545,000
    February 2013Contact
    February 2013$545,000
    October 2010$699,000

497 FERNIE RD, MORANGUP

634 acres (approx)

Rural
Last Advertised Price : May 2013
$1,050,000
Historical Prices:

    May 2013$1,050,000
    May 2013Under Offer

497 FERNIE ROAD, MORANGUP

2565710 sqm
Last Advertised Price : May 2013
$1,050,000
Historical Prices:

    May 2013$1,050,000
    March 2013$1,250,000
    February 2013Contact

LT 67 / 45 ECHIDNA ROAD, MORANGUP

Land
Last Advertised Price : April 2013
$320,000
Historical Prices:

    April 2013$320,000
    March 2013$320,000
    February 2013Contact

482 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

Retirement
Last Advertised Price : March 2013
$599,000
Historical Prices:

    March 2013$599,000
    February 2013$599,000
    January 2013$599,000
    February 2012$675,000
    January 2012$675,000

41 BRUMBY CHASE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : February 2013
$849,000
Historical Prices:

    February 2013$849,000
    January 2013$849,000 Under Offer
    December 2012$849,000

692 MORANGUP ROAD, MORANGUP

Livestock
Last Advertised Price : November 2012
$799,000
Historical Prices:

    November 2012 $799,000
    October 2012 $799,000
    July 2012 $830,000
    March 2012 $830,000
    October 2011 $830,000

5 BROOK CLOSE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : September 2012
$569,000
Historical Prices:

    September 2012 $569,000
    August 2012 $599,000
    July 2012 $599,000
    June 2012 $600,000 From

75 BRUMBY CHASE, MORANGUP

Rural
Last Advertised Price : September 2012
$550,000
Historical Prices:

    September 2012$550,000
    August 2012Under Offer
    July 2012$550,000

399 LOUISA CIRCLE, MORANGUP

Last Advertised Price : August 2012
$569,000 Offers
Historical Prices:

    August 2012 $569,000 Offers
    June 2012 $595,000
    April 2012 $595,000
    March 2012 $595,000

98 DRYANDRA ROAD, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : August 2012
$895,000 +
Historical Prices:

    August 2012$895,000 +
    November 2011$940,000
    October 2011$940,000
    November 2010$985,000
    October 2010$985,000
    August 2010$985,000
    July 2010$985,000
    December 2009$1,150,000 New
    June 2009$1,185,000 New

316 RED BROOK CIRCLE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : August 2012
$549,000 Fr
Historical Prices:

    August 2012$549,000 Fr
    January 2012$549,000 Under Offer

120 GREVILLEA PLACE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : August 2012
$649,000
Historical Prices:

    August 2012$649,000
    June 2012$649,000
    February 2012$725,000 - $750,000
    January 2011$750,000

75 BRUMBY, MORANGUP

Last Advertised Price : July 2012
$550,000
Historical Price:

    July 2012$550,000

1107 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP

House
Last Advertised Price : May 2012
$639,000
Historical Prices:

    May 2012$639,000
    May 2012Under Offer
    December 2011$679,000
    September 2011$695,000
    August 2011$695,000
    June 2011$730,000
    April 2011$730,000

120 MCKNOE DRIVE, MORANGUP
Last Advertised Price : May 2012
$360,000
Historical Prices:

    May 2012$360,000
    April 2012$360,000 SOLD
    April 2012$360,000
    October 2011$440,000

88 CHARCOAL ROAD, MORANGUP2

Lifestyle
Last Advertised Price : April 2012
$395,000 - $405,000
Historical Prices:

    April 2012$395,000 - $405,000
    December 2011$395,000 - $405,000

120 ECHIDNA ROAD, MORANGUP

Lifestyle
Last Advertised Price : April 2012
$449,000
Historical Prices:

    April 2012$449,000
    December 2011$449,000


Cattle Shelter Guidelines


The provision of shelter allows cattle to better cope with the varying climatic extremes that can occur throughout the year and can increase their productivity.


Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act

Cattle are kept in a variety of situations, ranging from extensive grazing to close confinement and housing. Whatever the form of husbandry, owners and managers have a moral and legal responsibility to care for the welfare of animals under their control. The basic needs of cattle - adequate food, water, air, shelter, treatment, comfort and the freedom to move and express normal behaviour patterns - must be met.

Section 9 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986 defines cruelty offences and requires that proper and sufficient shelter is provided for animals.



Provision of shelter for cattle

Cattle sheltering in shade provided by tree belt


Healthy cattle can tolerate a wide range of temperatures if they are acclimatised and have adequate feed and water. However, shelter can improve the welfare of the animal and reduce production losses. Animals without shelter need to put more energy into normal functioning and less into production.


Animals must be provided with shelter in times of above or below average temperatures. This can minimise the impact of climatic extremes and prevent suffering or possibly death.



Adverse weather

Adverse weather includes climatic extremes such as low temperatures with wind and rain combining to impose a severe chill factor, the sudden onset of prolonged wet and windy conditions, or heatwave conditions with sudden or prolonged severe heat. Cattle need access to shelter from these conditions. Whether natural or manmade, animals will seek out appropriate shelter for the prevailing conditions.

The amount of shelter provided should be sufficient for all animals to access it at the same time, and stocking rates may need to be adjusted to allow this. This will prevent overcrowding around areas of shade or water.

Hot weather

Dairy cows resting in shade where available during heat of day



Cattle lose heat primarily by respiration (from moist tissues in the respiratory system) as well as through transference of heat into the air and by evaporation of water from sweat.


Providing shelter enables cattle to shade from direct sun, reducing the extra heat load they take on (by up to 50 per cent). Heat stress and exhaustion should not occur if cattle are able to find shade and rest during the hottest part of the day.


Calves and pregnant cattle are more at risk of heat stress due to their lower heat threshold, as are animals with a history of respiratory disease due to a decreased ability to dissipate heat through panting.


In hot conditions where shade is available, cattle prefer to rest during the day and will spend the cooler parts of the day grazing.


If no trees are available, cattle will camp next to water such as dams or creeks during the day and feed at night. It has been demonstrated that cattle prefer shade over water in hot conditions and will spend more time resting and less time chewing their cud as ambient temperature increases.


Animals at highest risk of heat stress include:

  • over fat stock
  • young animals
  • dark coloured animals
  • high producing dairy cows
  • sick animals or animals that have previous history of respiratory disease.

Appetite is reduced during extreme heat and can result in decreased daily weight gains and feed efficiency. Provision of good quality, highly palatable feed and plenty of shelter during periods of hot weather will reduce the heat load of the animals and assist in maintaining normal feed intakes. Any new feed should be gradually introduced to reduce the risk of acidosis or metabolic disease.


Dairy farms

Research into dairy cattle production under heat stress demonstrates the welfare benefit and improved production where shade and shelter are provided. A study on the economic effects of heat loads on dairy cattle production in Australia has shown that extreme heat has the following effects on dairy production:

  • reduced milk yield
  • reduced milk fat and protein percentages
  • lower first service conception rates
  • lower calf birth weights
  • larger number of services per pregnancy.

The effect of extreme heat was more pronounced for high producing cows, and resulted in reductions of up to 461 litres of milk per cow per year on farms that did not provide shade for their herds. A further study found that milk production was three per cent greater for shaded cows than for unshaded cows. Heat stress in dairy cows standing in the holding yard can be reduced with the use of sprinklers and the provision of shade during hot and humid weather.


Research also shows a higher mortality rate in calves subjected to heat stress in their first week of life. Cows may be observed trying to shade their calves and it has been shown that cows will actively seek sheltered areas in which to calve. Artificially reared calves must have access to shelter in hot weather with natural air flow important for cooling of the environment.

Shelter suitable during hot weather

The best type of shelter during extreme heat protects animals from the sun and allows for the cooling effect of the wind. Some options for shelter in hot weather are:

  • constructed shelters using materials such as shade cloth, corrugated iron or timber
  • shadebelts – these are usually a single line of deciduous trees, planted in an east-west direction to give shade on the south side The trees can be pruned to improve air movement
  • trees with large canopies - planted individually in fields. Trees have a cooling effect due to absorption of heat by the leaves naturally undulating paddocks and gullies
  • shelterbelts – thick hedges of trees usually fenced off from stock. Shelterbelts can provide good protection from the sun but should be thinned evenly to allow wind flow. Planting them in an east-west direction provides shade during the hottest part of the day.
Water

The importance of clean fresh water during periods of extreme heat should not be underestimated. As a general rule dairy cattle drink somewhere in the range of 120-150 litres of water per day when producing about 20 litres of milk but. This requirement can increase by as much as 80 per cent on days over 35ºC.

Water sources should be familiar to animals before an extreme weather event, be close to shelter and be of sufficient volume to cope during periods of peak demand. The number of watering points and/or water flow should be increased if a large number of animals are kept together.


Cold weather

Wind chill and rain may reduce the animal's effective temperature to below its critical level, resulting in a decrease in weight gain and milk yield and increases in milk fat. For high risk animals the outcome may even be death.

Cattle at highest risk of cold stress include:

  • newly born calves and calving cows
  • animals in low body condition
  • sick animals.


Appetite is stimulated by cold temperatures, and cold stress increases an animal's requirement for energy to maintain body temperature and functions. Studies suggest that a yearling's energy requirement may increase 2.5 fold during an extreme winter event. Where cold stress is likely, providing shelter (e.g. windbreaks) and increasing the availability of highly digestible and palatable feed will assist cattle to maintain normal body temperature and production - thus minimising the effects of cold stress.


Calving cows

Special shelter management may be necessary for calving cows and their calves. If required, small paddocks within a sheltered area along the edge of shelterbelts are useful.

Close regular observation should be carried out and any cow found down and unable to stand should receive appropriate treatment and be provided with shelter or be moved carefully to a sheltered area. Extra feed may be required to help the cow meet her own metabolic needs as well as the nutritional needs of the calf.


Calves

Calves are most at risk during cold weather due to their small size. They need to have good shelter provided, as even strong and healthy calves can die if exposed to adverse weather.

Decreasing temperature and increasing precipitation on the day of calving increases mortality, and calves born to heifers are particularly susceptible to adverse weather conditions.

Additionally, cold stress has been shown to decrease the rate of absorption of colostrum in newborn calves; thus compromising their immune system and contributing potentially to morbidity and mortality.

Pens used for rearing calves should have a draught-free covered area to protect calves from the elements, and paddocks should have shelter accessible to all calves.

Shelter suitable for extreme cold
  • constructed wind breaks (cattle may also use wind breaks to rub up against and consequently the wind breaks will need to be structurally sound and safe)
  • natural undulating paddocks and gullies
  • shelterbelts are the best form of shelter against wind, with the 'shelter zone' spanning a distance about 14 times the height of the trees. If wind speed is reduced, cold stress is markedly reduced
  • trees for protection from wind should be planted in a north-south direction to protect from north and south westerly winds.

The trees forming the shelterbelt should be spaced evenly and be semi-permeable in order to slow the wind without creating turbulence. Under-planting should be incorporated to prevent the wind being funneled through gaps at livestock level.

Pregnant cattle should not be grazed in paddocks where there are fallen branches of Macrocarpa, Western Yellow Pine or Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) as these species are known to induce abortion if ingested.

Sheds (open on one side) erected in paddocks can afford protection from wind.

Temporary shelter can be provided in the form of shade cloths or plastic tarpaulins if other shelter is not available.


Other considerationsShelter and water

Care should be taken when placing shelter near water so it does not result in animals camping around the water source, causing overcrowding and preventing animals from accessing water.

The number of watering points and /or water flow as well as the amount of available shade should be sufficient for the number of animals, and be increased if a large number of animals are kept together.


Sick animals

Animals in poor conditions (including cattle coming out of a drought), sick animals or those with a history of respiratory disease are especially vulnerable to the extremes of weather, and should be housed separately from the main mob to ensure preferential access to shelter and feed and expedited treatment. Without appropriate shelter these animals may die from the impact of adverse weather conditions.


Moving animals already under stress requires care and planning so it needs to be done well before an extreme weather event, to prevent further aggravation of the animal's condition.

Animals that have been injured in a natural disaster such as fire or flood need protection from the elements as they will be especially sensitive to the extremes of heat, sun or cold.


Stock showing signs of photosensitivity (sunburn) must have access to shade. Preventative measures are available for some types of photosensitivity, including facial eczema. Sunburnt stock will also benefit from veterinary treatment.


Feedlots

Feedlot cattle should be protected from extreme adverse weather conditions causing cold stress, heat stress or excessive heat load. Feedlot staff and management must be aware of the climatic conditions and the clinical signs in cattle that are associated with heat stress.

Feedlots must have in place plans for minimising the impact of hot and cold weather and dealing with heat and cold stress.

In relation to heat stress, the provision of shade or alternative means of cooling such as sprinklers and fans may be required.

In these conditions, cattle should be constantly monitored for signs of restlessness, decreased food intake, congregating/huddling around water troughs and, cessation of rumination, which would indicate thermal load stress requiring immediate preventative action.

Where cold stress predominates, shelter (e.g. windbreaks, mounding) and allowance for additional nutrient requirements should be provided.


Holding yards

When cattle are in holding yards, use should be made of artificial and natural shade to protect them from extremes of wind, heat and cold. Shelter is important for young animals (especially calves under two weeks of age) if they are left in yards for longer than two hours before transport and loading.


Transport

Transport of cattle should be planned so that climatic extremes likely to compromise their welfare are avoided.


In hot weather

If transport on days of extreme heat is absolutely necessary, the journey plan should minimise the effects of heat stress on animals with rest stops planned to be in areas of shade and perhaps a water source.


Animals should only be transported during the cooler hours of the day. If it is necessary to stop, park the vehicle in the shade and at a right angle to the wind direction to improve wind flow between animals during hot weather. Duration of stops should be kept to a minimum to avoid the buildup of heat while the vehicle is stationary.

Stocking densities should be reduced to 85 per cent of capacity to ensure good air flow between animals, and drivers should have contingency plans in place for adverse weather events.


In cold weather

If stock are being transported in very cold weather, vehicles may need to be halted and parked in a protected area to prevent wind chill and hypothermia in the animals. A trailer with a solid front must be used for young stock to reduce the wind chill factor.


Summary

The provision of shelter for cattle is an important management practice that has shown benefits such as improved growth rates and milk production and reduced mortality. Farmers, managers and those in charge of livestock have a responsibility to provide shelter so that the health and welfare of livestock is not compromised.


Remember: Provide shelter for all stock, identify areas of shelter on farm suitable for use during adverse weather events, and give special consideration to shelter for young, sick or pregnant stock
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